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Over two weeks of international climate negotiations in Madrid at COP25 ended in mid-December. However, with low ambition and slow pace, little progress was made.

What is COP25?
COP25 is the 25th annual conference held under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. These conferences are for states and other stakeholders to coordinate international action on climate change.

What were the key outcomes?
States recognised that tougher carbon targets are needed globally. However, many onlookers regard COP25 as a failure, as few countries came up with new targets, and consensus about a global carbon market proved elusive.

2020 will be the year where countries submit new emissions reduction commitments. This year was therefore important for building ambition and advancing implementation. With pressure mounting on a more comprehensive agreement, hopefully the urgency of the climate crisis will set the stage for more cooperation and higher ambition next year.

Chema Vera, the interim executive director of Oxfam International, said: “The world is screaming out for action, but this summit responded with a whisper. The poorest nations are in a sprint for survival, yet many governments have barely moved from the starting blocks. Instead of committing to more ambitious cuts in emissions, countries have argued over technicalities.”